The prevention of possible complications due to infection by the new coronavirus in pregnant women - a literature review
INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus belonging to a family that causes respiratory infections. A French study has shown that in pregnant women, this virus may be responsible for severe respiratory syndromes and pneumonia. Pneumonia during pregnancy increases the risk of cesarean section, premature birth, decreased Apgar score, and low birth weight. AIM: To analyze studies regarding the primary prevention of the new coronavirus in pregnancy published in the literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature review was carried out with the following MeSH descriptors: “coronavirus infections”, “primary prevention” and “pregnancy”, in the MEDLINE database. Ten articles from the last five years were found and three were selected. The inclusion criteria were: original articles, articles fully available, articles in English and French, and articles published between 2015 and 2020. Also, data were collected on the websites of the World Health Organization and the Ministry of Health of Brazil. Review, case reports, articles that weren’t related to the subject, or unavailable papers were excluded. RESULTS: The Groupe de Recherche en Obstétrique et Gynécologie collected data from 617 pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 1 and April 14 (2020), from 33 French maternity hospitals. 15.1% of women needed oxygen therapy and 5.7% had a severe form of COVID-19, with one death. The rates of prematurity, cesarean sections, and neonatal hospitalization in the intensive care unit increased. Two weeks after the imposition of the lockdown in France, the number of pregnant women diagnosed and with respiratory failure who required any sort of mechanical ventilation decreased. Another study collected information from five pregnant women in the third trimester, with COVID-19, from the Maternal-Child Hospital of Hubei between January 20 and February 10, 2020. After birth, two patients developed cough and mild fever. CT scan, blood tests, and antibiotics were promptly ordered in the suspected cases and the newborns were monitored, with breastfeeding restriction. The Polish Society of Gynecologists and recommends an initial selection by teleconsultation of patients before ultrasound, and, in non-febrile patients, but with symptoms of cold, it is advisable to postpone the examination for a week until the symptoms subside. CONCLUSION: The link between lockdown and the reduction of critical cases of COVID-19 in France suggests that these types of measures could reduce the incidence of respiratory complications, especially in pregnant women with comorbidities. Further studies are needed to define the best maternal care in the coronavirus pandemic.
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