Epidemiology and current profile more frequent of Tuberculosis in the state of Rio de Janeiro
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the contagion of which occurs primarily through the air. Wherever it is found, the disease is capable of causing changes in the shape and function of the organs, such as: consolidations, cavitations, changes in interstitial patterns, among others. It has simple and low-cost diagnostic methods, in addition to highly effective medications, but still has a high prevalence in Brazil: an additional 91.000 cases in 2019, and the state of Rio de Janeiro contributed about 15.32% of this figure. Thus, knowing the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis in this state constitutes an important axis for the construction of prevention and treatment policies related to this pathology. AIM: To analyze the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis cases reported in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and thus to draw up a more frequent infectious profile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a quantitative, descriptive type study, based on the search of public and unrestricted access data present on the DataSus/TabNet site about confirmed cases reported in the Acute Notification Information System - SINAN, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2019. RESULTS: The total number of cases in Rio de Janeiro was 13.934. When analyzing the age group, the highest rate is present in the 20 to 29 age group (30%). In relation to sex, the prevalence is in males (70.4%). Also, taking into account the type of entry in the notification, entry per new case is predominant (78.27%). In addition, the highest value of extrapulmonary cases is pleural tuberculosis (44.85%) and the lowest value is genitourinary tuberculosis (1.2%). Of the total number of diagnoses, 54.25% were laboratory diagnosed. Finally, taking into account the situation of closure, the rate of cure is 15.72%, abandonment is 5.43%, death from tuberculosis is 2.08%, death from other causes is 2.05%, there was a change in the treatment scheme in 0.31% of cases and 1% of people had tuberculosis resistant to drugs. CONCLUSION: Thus, according to the most recent data, the most frequent current epidemiological profile of tuberculosis in the state of Rio de Janeiro is primarily of men between 20 and 29 years of age, belonging to new cases and having obtained the diagnosis by laboratory. Also, when the presentation is not pulmonary, it is predominantly pleural. 15.72% of cases were cured.
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