Study of Ivermectin as a form of treatment for COVID-19: a systematic Review
INTRODUCTION: In December 2019 the city of Wuhan faced an outbreak of unknown cause pneumonia and testing was carried out for various types of viruses, but all had negative results. However, it was found that this pneumonia was caused by a new Coronavirus and was called COVID-19 by the World Health Organization. The virus spread caused a pandemic and the search for drugs to treat it promptly started. Currently, the virus caused major impact on society, the healthcare system and the economy. Although there are studies with various types of drugs aimed at inhibiting viral replication, there is still nothing with proven effectiveness. AIM: The present study aimed to identify Ivermectin in the scientific literature as a treatment for Covid-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a systematic review, carried out at the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde). Only studies published in 2020 were searched. For the search, the following descriptors were used: “Treatment”, “Ivermectin” and “Coronavirus”, the selection was made from the search protocol previously prepared and meticulous reading of the articles. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 5 publications, of which after reading the studies, it was observed that Ivermectin is a medication that has been used for several years in mammals. When administered orally, it seems to be safe and with low rate of adverse effects. Studies show that the new Coronavirus is a single-stranded RNA virus. An in vitro test was performed where it was shown that cells infected with COVID-19 had a 5000-fold reduction in viral RNA when treated with Ivermectin within 48 hours; and when exposed to Ivermectin in the first 72 hours, no RNA material of the virus was observed. Research has shown that the drug has an effect on the virus protein, preventing it from entering the cell nucleus. The authors created a thesis that ivermectin binds and destabilizes IMPα/β, making it impossible to bind to viral protein. However, the authors report that this mechanism is not completely safe and needs further studies. CONCLUSION: Despite the efficacy of the drug in studies in vitro, there is no evidence of its success in vivo. Although studies with ivermectin have been shown to be satisfactory in single-stranded RNA viruses, clinical studies in humans are still needed to prove their full effectiveness for the treatment of the new Coronavirus.
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