Hypoalbuminemia in post-bariatric patients - A review
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with genetic, hormonal, neural and metabolic factors. In many cases, the main option for reversing the condition is bariatric surgery, with different anatomical methods. However, it is very common for bariatric patients to develop malnutrition. One of the main deficiencies comprises proteins, and hypoalbuminemia is a significant factor in its evaluation. OBJETIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a literature review of data referring to hypoalbuminemia in patients who underwent bariatric surgery. METHODOLOGY: A systematic review was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and Scielo, with the inclusion of 15 articles, published between 2011 and 2020. At following keywords were used individually or in association: bariatric surgery, obesity, malnutrition, hypoalbuminemia. RESULTS: The majority of patients who underwent bariatric surgery did not achieve the minimum daily protein intake. Hypoalbuminemia was present in a significant number of cases, which was an important late complication. The choice of the surgical method was directly associated with the incidence of malnutrition protein, and in general, it was essential to have food control and supplementation. In the other hand, severe cases, showed symptoms ranging from edema, mental confusion to the requirement for hospitalization and, when intractable, reoperation, which increased the risk of death. CONCLUSION: We highlight the relevance of intensive nutritional monitoring with all patients, including individualized supplementation. In addition, a solid cost-benefit standard with the surgical methods currently available is required.
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