Incidence of congenital malformations in live births in the state of Rio de Janeiro
INTRODUCTION: According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), congenital malformations are defects in the constitution of some organ - or group of them - that determine a structural morphological anomaly present at birth due to genetic, environmental or mixed causes. They are compatible with life, but they flee from normality with damage to function. In Brazil, these malformations exceeded 24.000 in 2018, with the state of Rio de Janeiro contributing about 6%. Thus, knowing the epidemiological profile of congenital malformations constitutes an important axis for the construction of prevention and treatment policies related to them. AIM: To analyze the incidence of diagnoses of congenital diseases in live births in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2018 (most recent data) based on births per occurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive work, of quantitative and analytical character of public data and of unrestricted access, available in the TabNet/DataSus (Ministério da Saúde), not being necessary approval in ethics committee or signature of informed consent form. RESULTS: The state of Rio de Janeiro presented 1.481 cases of live births with congenital abnormalities in the period, equivalent to 5.98% of the total number of cases in Brazil and 12.46% of the cases in southeastern Brazil. Of the total in the state: 53 cases were due to spina bifida; 118 due to another congenital malformation of the nervous system; 117 due to congenital malformations of the circulatory system; 81 due to cleft lip and palate; 4 due to absence, atresia or stenosis of the small intestine; 47 due to other congenital digestive malformations; 31 by undescended testicle; 37 by other genitourinary malformations; 3 by congenital hip deformity; 149 by congenital foot deformity; 522 by other osteomuscular congenital malformations; 5 by hemangioma and lymphangioma and 212 by other congenital malformations. CONCLUSION: Thus, according to the available data, the incidence of congenital malformations in live births in the state of Rio de Janeiro is constituted, from the most prevalent to the least prevalent, by involvement of osteomuscular apparatus, lower limbs, nervous system, circulatory apparatus and facial clefts. Other anomalies not so frequent but present include: spina bifida, atresias, stenosis, dysplasia, genitourinary alterations, testicular alterations, among others. In addition, more studies are needed in order to update the analysis of the attention scenario to this framework so that new public policies for prevention and treatment can be implemented and existing ones improved.
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