INTRODUCTION: The picture of congenital morphological changes in the extremities of the lower limbs is quite frequent in the reports of live births by occurrence, about 0.1% in Brazilian territory, in 2018. The clubfoot is the most common pediatric deformity and occurs in 1 in every 1000 live births. It is a complex condition of the foot and one of the most common birth defects involving the skeletal muscle system. Although it has been extensively researched, the etiology of this disease remains poorly understood and is often described as multifactorial. In addition, the anatomy and histology of this condition can be varied and deserve to be studied. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to analyze the general picture of the anatomy of the congenital equinovarus talipes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a qualitative bibliographic review based on the bibliographic search (n = 11), with the Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS): Talipes, Congenital and Anatomy & histology, in the SpringerLink, PubMed and Scielo databases, filtered for the year, 2016-2020, and language, English, Portuguese and Spanish. RESULTS: This orthopedic deformity presents itself as a congenital dysplasia of musculoskeletal structures such as tendons, muscles, ligaments, osteoarticular and neurovascular structures, originating from several factors and an idiopathic cause. The fibrotic tissue existing in the ligaments, fascias, muscles, tendon sheaths of the posteromedial region of the ankle and hindfoot ratify the prognosis of primary soft tissue defect and neuromuscular units that lead to bone changes. Such modifications cause complications in their treatment due to anatomical changes presented, since blood vessels, muscles, nerves and tendons, of the foot, ankle and leg undergo changes in size and location. In this malformation, the bad development of the talus causes inversion and supination of the foot and adduction of the forefoot. It is known that current methods of treatment are not capable of correcting the affected limbs in a morphological, complete and permanent way. CONCLUSION: After analyzing the researched literature, it was noticed that the anatomy and histology present in the congenital clubfoot malformation are varied and present themselves in different ways. Inversion of the rotation of joints is common, as well as diverse histological presences such as dysplasias and atrophies. Still, due to the complexity of this situation, it is important that medical monitoring is recommended for a better prognosis for the patient. Still, due to little recent literature on the subject, it is understood that further research is necessary in order to update the framework of knowledge about this so common congenital abnormality.
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