Epidemiological profile of cleft lip and palate in Brazil between 2010 and 2020
INTRODUCTION: Cleft palate slits are considered one of the most prevalent birth defects among malformations affecting the face of humans. Characterized as a fissure that can affect both the lip and palate region during the intrauterine phase, this condition may be associated with both genetic factors and environmental factors, and may be linked to the consumption of medications, alcohol, drugs, among others by the mother in the prenatal phase. This condition can present itself in several ways and have different degrees of complexity depending on the affected area, which may be a complete or incomplete fissure, unilateral or bilateral, and symmetrical or not. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological profile of the Cleft Lip and Palate in Brazil between 2010 and 2020. METHODS: This is a quantitative descriptive epidemiological study, of the retrospective type, through data collection from the Hospital Information System of the SUS, available for consultation in the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System. RESULTS: Between 2010-2020, 81,268 hospitalizations were observed for the treatment of cleft back, representing a total expenditure of R$111,219,062.54. In this period, there was a high prevalence of the number of cases in males, aged 0-4 years, since they are usually submitted to correction surgery in childhood. The regions with the highest number of hospitalizations were the Southeast and Northeast, with 40,520 and 16,334 cases, respectively. Regarding the total number of correction and treatment procedures, 70,346 were performed electively and 10,922 were urgent, with a mean total hospitalization stay of 2 days and the total mortality rate of 0.08, which corresponds to about 61 deaths. CONCLUSION: Cleft palate has a high prevalence in the country, with an increase in the number of hospitalizations each year. This increase occurs especially in the Southeast region, where the main assistance centers are located. Because it is a congenital malformation, there is a great need for more efficient and rapid strategies in the treatment of these patients, so that there are no future losses. In addition, improvements in prevention processes are necessary, with emphasis on better quality prenatal care, health promotion and rehabilitation, and this rehabilitation by a qualified multidisciplinary team.
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