Treatment for major burns
INTRODUCTION: Burns are coagulative lesions that involve several layers of the body. They can be caused by physical, chemical or biological agents and assume variable proportions, depending on the exposure time, the percentage of the burned area and the causative agent. They are classified as major burns when they are: second degree burns with an affected body area greater than 15% in children under 12 years old or greater than 20% in children over 12 years old; third degree burns with more than 10% of the body area affected in adults and more than 5% in children under 12 years old; burn of perineum, electric current, hand or foot or face or neck or armpit that has third degree. AIM: It addresses the set of measures that are applied in the treatment of major burns, with a view to the practice of Oral Maxillofacial Surgeon and with an emphasis on head and neck sequelae. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature review was performed with electronic search in SciELO and PubMed with indexed descriptors and in English "Burns" and "Emergency treatment" and "Face". There was a time constraint over the past five years with a total of 100 screened articles that took place by titles and abstracts, afterwards with their complete analysis. RESULTS: In the first care for the burned patient, the basic examination of primary care is performed. Criteria for transferring the patient are observed in the special burn unit: screening, outpatient, general hospital, UTQ and estimate of the burned area surface. It is essential to carry out water rebalancing of the burned patient, Parkland's formula, by Ringer with Lactate. Among the medications there are topical agents (solutions, creams and natural products). Silver Sulfadiazine 1% is one of the most used topical agents in the treatment of burns, it is a compound of silver nitrate and sodium sulfadiazine, it helps in the debridement of necrotic tissues, it fights local infection - effective against a wide gram-negative microbiota and some gram positive. However, the best conduct to be performed by the professional will depend on the classification of this patient regarding age, causative agent, extent, depth, location of the lesion, general conditions of the patient and infectious complications.CONCLUSION: The Oral Maxillofacial Surgeon intervenes in burns that affect the head and neck in order to mitigate sequelae of facial structures and damage to the communication capacity and functionality of the stomatognathic system.
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