An osteometric study of the mandibular foramen and incidence of the accessory mandibular foramen in dry adult Nigerian mandibles
Introduction: The mandibular foramen has been a landmark for several orthognathic surgeries; hence its position is vital in preventing neurovascular complications and misinterpretations. This research was carried out to determine the location of the mandibular foramen and to investigate the incidence of this accessory foramen in a Nigerian population. Material and Methods: Sixty-five (65) dry adult human mandibles were investigated. Parameters were obtained with a digital vernier caliper calibrated to 0.1mm. T-test was used to compare means between sides while one-way Analysis of variance was used to compare means between and within groups of measured parameters. Chi-square was used to test for an association between the 2nd and 3rd anterior posterior and superior inferior localization of the foramen. Significance was accepted at p< 0.05. Results: The mean AB-MF and PB-MF distance was 20.95±3.10mm and 13.73±1.87mm respectively while that of MN-MF was 24.64 ±3.06mm and 27.60 ±3.72mm for MF-MB. The mean MF-G dimension was 24.20±3.46mm, AB-PB was 37.02±3.88mm, MF(Width) was 2.34 + 1.17 while the MN-MF was 52.35±4.83mm. Accessory mandibular foramen was observed in 20% of the accessed mandibles. Further findings revealed a significant difference in the MF-G distance at p<0.05 (t=2.349; p=0.020; Ssq=63.714; p=0.020). Conclusion: Findings from this study showed that the Nigerian mandibles are located in the posterior region and superior half of the ramus. They were also located in the 2nd and 3rd quadrant superior-inferiorly and anterior-posteriorly while the accessory foraminas’ were positioned superior- posterior to the mandibular foramen.
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